A History of London Dissent, violence, arrest, prison, incarceration the steps middle and upper class women took in the early years of the 20th century to win the right to vote were long and painful. As part of the BBC's ongoing A History of the World season, Sheila Hancock tells the st nike free 4.0 ory of the suffragettes through objects from their campaign and the London places that still resonate with their presence. Only 60% of men, those who owned property, could vote in general elections; women, along with the poor, criminals and the insane, were denied this right. A BBC London documentary presented by Sheila Hancock shows that some were starting to demand a voice. The first indication that change was afoot came in June 1908 with Hyde Park as the setting for a major spectacle designed to stun society. "They had 20 platforms with about half a dozen speakers, all talking about what a good idea it would be for women to have the vote," she explains in the programme. Refined ladies were not supposed to demonstr cheap air jordan shoes nike free 4.0 ate in public spaces. But Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, thought differently. They and their supporters in the Women's Political and Social Union wanted to stir up a 30 year old quest for women's suffrage by influencing public opinion with deeds not words a suffragette motto and call for militant action. Purple, white and green Objects in the Museum of London's collection of memorabilia help bring this dramatic story to life. The protestors adopted a set of colours for a new uniform, complete with military sash, presented for the first time in Hyde Park purple for dignity, white for purity and green representing fertility and hope for the future. The sash was joined by the motoring scarf and button b cheap nike free run nike free 4.0 adges, sold for one old penny, in a brilliant example of early marketing and merchandising. There was also a board game, the Pank a Squith, named after the then prime minister Herbert Asquith, a Liberal who thought the WPSU a mere irritant. The idea of the game was to move around a spiral grid taking a suffragette from her jordans for sale nike free 4.0 home at the top of the board and avoiding a series of obstacles until she eventually reached the House of Commons in the middle. The defining object of the whole campaign, however, was the belt and harness used by protestors to chain themselves to the railings of No 10 Downing Street and adapted from previous use as a restraint in lunatic asylums. Then there was the domestic toffee hammer, a lightweight, easily concealed device that could also destroy windows and property in order to cheap nike jordans store nike free 4.0 get the government to sit up and take notice. By 1910 as violence grew, arrests were becoming more frequent. Horrors of force feeding There was also another mass protest in Parliament Square on 18 November, an ugly event that came to be known as Black Friday for the police intimidation and number of running battles that ensued. All suffragettes were given the choice of paying a fine or going to prison; nearly all chose the latter for the publicity it brought to the movement even though the consequence was incarceration within the grim walls of Holloway Gaol. The women demanded the status of political prisoners. "Their violence, not just physical violence breaking shop windows along Regent Street and Oxford Street, was an intellectual violence as well," he continues. But the most extreme suffragette action was yet to come. Stepping into men's shoes On 4 June 1913 Emily Davison, a Blackheath born WPSU member, arrived at the Epsom Derby intent on making a dramatic public protest by fatally throwing herself in front of the King's horse.
A History of Marriage in the Movies' The most important event in the lives of millions of people, cheap nike jordans store nike free 4.0 marriage, even at it best, as Cantor implied, is often filled with daily responsibilities and tedium. For moviemakers, according to Jeanine Basinger, it has been a nightmare. And to solve it, somehow, some way, so that the couple could live happily ever after. Off screen. Analyzing the content of hundreds of films from the silent era, the heyday of the studio system, and the contemporary age, she demonstrates that marriage has remained in untenable plot position While the movies can credibly present courtship as a battlefield, they invariably portray marriage a field of dead bodies after the war is won. The real fun in Do And I Don however, comes from the splendidly crafted, creative, and compelling critiques that make you want to see many movies again or for the first time. Painted Veil featured Greta Garbo, decked out in an Asian style turban, stepping out into dark and velvety night, where Chinese fire dragons, gongs, glitter, a sun god with a naked chest and long fingernails, and, cheap nike free run nike free 4.0 course, George Brent, are wa nike free 4.0 iting, she writes. That film epitomized how adultery was presented to audiences in the 1930s: a tale of erotic, exotic escapism. Alice Faye, Basinger admits, was no great shakes as a dancer and passive, even immobilized in the frame. But as she sang the World War II wife lament, Love, No Nothin in Gang All Here, didn just tug on heartstrings; she ripped out guts and furthermore made anyone who was cheating feel guilty as hell. As a bonus prize inside her Cracker Jack box of a book, Basinger also compares marriage movies and 1950s TV sitcoms. Despite happy endings, she reminds us, monsters lurked close to the surface of movies; beneath sitcoms, where marriage was de sexed and familial problems easily solved, the sponsors. Over the past half century, Basinger concludes, moviemakers have been less i cheap air jordan shoes nike free 4.0 nterested in the subject of marriage. Her explanation that the institution has increasingly socially irrelevant and lost interest in the events of married life is almost certainly an overstatement. After all, while about half of the marriages in the United States end in divorce, Americans are quicker than adults in other countrie jordans for sale nike free 4.0 s to reconnect and remarry. And most young people who declare that marriage is obsolete also say they intend to tie the knot. But Basinger is surely right that, recently, marriage movies have gone nuclear. With spouses in War of the Roses (1989) and and Mrs. Smith (2005) literally shooting at one another, it hard to argue, moreover, with her prediction that marriage movies are headed toward resolution, no closure, no reassurance, and, finally, no explanation. And that although marriage is a story that can really be told, Hollywood is likely to to tell it anyway.
A history of Wisden The year 1864 was memorable for many reasons. Paraguay was at war with Brazil. Britain was having some trouble with the Bhutanese in India and the Ashantis in West Africa. Charles Dickens pr jordans for sale nike free 4.0 oduced Our Mutual Friend. In Manchester, photographs were taken for the first time by magnesium flashlight; the first stone of the London Embankment was cheap nike free run nike free 4.0 laid; Clifton Suspension Bridge was opened and, after repulsing an attack on Kintang, the great General Gordon exploded 40,000 lb. of powder under the walls of Nanking before recapturing it. Whilst the sound of this explosion was still reverberating, three other earth shaking events occurred. Grace scored 170 and 56 not out for the South Wales Cricket Club against the Gentlemen of Sussex at Brighton, overarm bowling was legal nike free 4.0 ised and, most important of all, Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack was born. A height of five feet four inches and a weight of seven stone is not perhaps the popular i cheap nike jordans store nike free 4.0 mage of a fast bowler. Yet, John Wisden, a Brighton builder's son, rightly known as the Little Wonder, averaged 225 wickets a season for twelve years, took 455 wickets in 1851, and with a tremendous off break clean bowled all ten wickets in the second innings for North v. South in 1850. He was largely responsible for the tour the first by an English team to Canada and the United States in 1859 where he performed a double hat trick, actually taking six wickets in six balls. He owned a tobacconistt's and sports equipment store in Leicester Square. His chief rival was Lillywhite Brothers Co. dealers in foreign cigars, tobacco etc. (unrivalled shag, highly recommended at 6s. 6d.) and sports equipment, whose premises were at 10, Princes Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington. Since 1849 they had issued The Young Cricketer's Guide at eighteenpence a copy, falling to one shilling for the later issues. It ended in 1866, but The Cricketer's Companion had taken its place in 1865. A mind as cogent as John Wisden's realised the value of such a publication as an advertisement and he determined to produce his own. It became a lasting memorial of his fame. and Ground at Brighton in August 1863 exactly one hundred years ago. Books must not be classified by size and shape alone. They are subject, even as clothes are, to the decrees of fashion. There is a straining after novelty, but always a dislike of breaking with the past. There have been volumes as tall as a man an cheap air jordan shoes nike free 4.0 d others as small as a walnut. We confess to a certain dislike of the Elephant folio. At Addison's Banquet of the Books, the folio still takes the top of the table; the twelves are below the salt, and the slim books can hardly find a place at all. Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack, having chosen at the outset a most perfect size for its purpose, has retained it through 100 issues, and with age its girth has increased. A natural slimming was evidenced during the lean years of two world wars, but the astonishing and wholly admirable thing is that it continued at all. In outward appearance, few vital changes can be noticed. The paper covers gave way to a limp cloth binding in 1938 and an alternative cloth boards edition was commenced in 1896. In 1938 the Wisden motif of two top hatted players at the wicket, appeared on the cover of the limp edition and has continued. In the paper editions 1904 5 the spelling Almanac is employed but this usage does not appear on the front cover nor on the cloth edition, which has Almanack. The first issue was published for one shilling and was available post free for 13 stamps obviously penny ones. By 1874 the number of pages had increased from the 112 of 1864 to 208 and a copy was sent post free for 14 stamps. It is curious that the issue for 1875, although 32 pages larger, was available for 13 stamps post free and that this also applied to that for 1876. Changes in postal charges are not unknown today. The post free price for 1878 and 1879 was 1s. 1d. and that for 1880 (234 pages with the advertisements) was 1s. 2d. The price was increased to 1s. 3d. post free with the issue of 1886 (382 pp.). So size and postage progressed, until today the cheapest way of posting a 1,067 page Wisden costs 1s. 3d. The first advertisement was in 1867 where, on the last page, appears an illustration of John Wisden and Co.'s Patent Catapulta, the principle of working which will be shown at 2, New Coventry Street, Leicester Square. Mr. Wanostrocht, in his Felix on the bat published in 1845, shows a Catapulta which was based on the principle of the siege machine of classical antiquity. Wisden's model was of an entirely different principle, the ball being propelled by a bow like structure. In 1883, the first advertisement appears in the text and is on the verso of the title page. Dr. Johnson in 1759 said: "The trade of advertising is now so near perfection that it is not easy to propose any improvement." In 1960, Britain spent 456 million on advertising and Wisden itself shows a similar evolution of the art to a stage much beyond any that Johnson could have conceived. The earnest desire of the proprietors to keep the cost as low as possible meant that advertisements must increase in quantity and to a very great extent these were banished to the front and end of the actual work itself. The increasing circulation helped to lower the cost of production, but the advertisements were an absolute necessity if the price were to remain at 1s. And so it did for over half its present life, that is for 51 issues until during the First World War in 1915. With the exception of 1868 there are only three publishers' imprints, with one minor variation. Until 1937 John Wisden and Co. were the publishers (in 1914 it became a limited liability company) and it seems that for a trial period of one year, John Wisden had a partner by name Maynard, and, for the year 1868 only, the imprint was Wisden and Maynard. Research has failed to provide any information on this short partnership. Wisden's publishers were blitzed during the winter of 1940 and all the records were lost, while Wisden's Mortlake factory with other records was destroyed in 1944. Altham says: "No doubt the Cabinet was unmoved, but cricketers felt it an almost personal outrage." Six printers are known to have been concerned with its production and Messrs. Balding and Mansell printed 39 consecutive issues. A main contributory to Wisden's success was the founding in 1880 of the Cricket Reporting Agency. Begun by Charles Pardon, who, seven years after its foundation first undertook the Editorship of Wisden, the editorial work has, since the 1887 edition, been carried through by the Cricket Reporting Agency, and Wisden's Editor has generally been a partner in the firm. Southerton, 1894 to 1935, and Hubert Preston, 1895 to 1951. Four current members with long service records are E. Eden, who began in 1922, H. Gee in 1931 and Norman Preston and Leslie Smith in 1933. Pardon, who was responsible for the issues from 1891 until 1925. Pardon. This was a great and formative period. His first issue had 420 pages and his penultimate one 1,010 pages. Every aspect of the game came under his careful scrutiny. The number of entries under Births and Deaths in 1891 was 753 and in his final issue of 1925, was 6,274. His was a cultured mind. He had definite opinions and was prepared to state them. His editorials make most interesting reading and his influence on the growth of the game throughout the world was immense. Ashley Cooper's meticulously accurate and informed statistical assistance was invaluable. Hubert Preston was in the same tradition and was equally notable in other and different fields. The present editor has shown that he too is worthy of the great traditions and has a lively sense of the best interests of the game. He is still fighting space, as all his predecessors have done, but is nevertheless allowing the publication to grow, and even the lesser known touring teams are allowed their brief mention. At this point it should be stated that the Almanack has attained a most remarkable degree of accuracy. The possibilities of errors are incalculable. The fact is that the degree of accuracy attained over the years has been astonishing. The old adage says that there are three kinds of lies. Lies, damned lies and statistics. Charles Dexter Cleveland in his preface to A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of John Milton says: "I had occasion to look at Todd's Verbal Index in connection with Lycidas. I found 63 mistakes." This in a poem of 193 lines. Yet, in its day, Todd's Verbal Index was considered to be a literary masterpiece. The fact is that in view of the inevitably large content of statistics, Wisden's Cricketers' Almanack has performed with very great credit. In its earlier days it met and squarely beat its competitors. Captain Bayley produced The Cricket Chronicle for the season 1863 which contained full scores of minor as well as important matches and the Lillywhites produced Guides, Companions and Annuals from 1849 to 1900. Wisden appears in the committee rooms of the whole world where cricket is played and is the final arbiter in any matter under dispute. Its success has been due to its manner of presentation and to its emphasis on accuracy and detail. The evolution of the growth of overseas cricket is a fascinating study and deserves an article to itself. Even the second issue of 1865 devoted 22 of its 160 pages to the doings of the Twelve in Australia under the captaincy of George Parr.